Material Properties

What is a composite?

A composite material is a macroscopic combination of two or more distinct materials that have a recognizable interface between them.

That is the textbook definition, but the practical explanation is that composite materials are high-strength, lightweight, and corrosion-resistant, and can be customized for any number of applications. Because of these qualities, composites are able to solve the issues that manufacturers face with the traditional use of steel. We are here to provide structures that are the solutions to your design challenges.

A wide variety of properties can be achieved through the proper selection of fiber type, fiber orientation and the resin matrix of the composite structure required for your application. Strong, stiff fibers carry the load and the resin matrix distributes the load evenly.

 

which composite solution is right for you?

Black Amalgon

This is our patented solution to reduce friction and withstand caustic environments within the Pneumatics industry.  To learn more about how Black Amalgon can be used as a custom solution for any issues you may encounter click below.

Resin Matrix

Amalga Composites has the technical background and experience to engineer a variety of resin systems for thermoset plastics.

The proven composite structures described on this page have been fabricated with anhydride-cured epoxy systems, which offer superior strength and stiffness properties, minimal shrinkage, and excellent resistance to corrosion, abrasion and impact.

 

Typical room temperature properties of the unfilled anhydride cured epoxy resin system.

Tensile Strength, psi12,300
Tensile Modulus, psi x 105450,000
Elongation %6%
Flexural Strength, psi12,000
Flexural Modulus, psi x 105425,000
Heat Distortion Temperature265°
Service Temperature255°F or 325°F

Fiber Types

More than 90 percent of the fiber used in composites are glass

 

  • Electrical or E-glass is the least expensive fiber
  • Structural or S-type glass has slightly better strength and corrosion resistance
  • Carbon, Kevlar and other advanced fibers exhibit superior tensile strengths and stiffness than glass fibers, but are typically reserved for applications demanding exceptional performance because of their higher cost.

 

Typical room temperature properties of E-glass, S-glass and commercial carbon fibers.

PropertiesE-glassS-glassCommercial Carbon
Tensile Strength, psi500665650
Young's Modulus, psi x 10611.8012.9034.00
Elongation %4.805.701.90
Volume Resistivity Ohm Mx10150.4020.905conductive
Dielectric Strength V/mil262330conductive
Dissipation Factor @ 60Hz0.0030.013conductive

Fiber Orientation

Orientation refers to the fiber direction in the laminate. Combining various orientations with the available resins and fiber types creates a wide range of structural properties.

BEAM STRUCTURES - Built for maximum stiffness.

Material PropertiesE-GlassCommercial
Carbon
High Modulus
Carbon
Applications
Flexural Modulus Longitudinal, 106 x psi5.514.021.0PROCESS ROLLERS
Flexural Modulus Circumferential, 106 x psi1.15.07.5
Tensile Strength Longitudinal, psi115,000130,000

130,000

Tensile Strength Circumferential, psiN/A36,00036,000BOOMS
Compressive Strength Longitudinal, psi5,000130,000

130,000

MASTS
Compressive Strength Circumferential, psi26,00050,00050,000BEAMS
Shear Modulus, psi x 1061.11.82.2COLUMNS
Shear Strength, psi8,0008,0008,000HIGH STIFFNESS CORES
CTE Circumferential, in/in/oF x 1068.67.16.4
CTE Longitudinal, in/in/oF x 1064.80.17-43.6
Poisson's ratio, Nuxy0.270.240.69
Density, Lb/in30.0720.0580.058

TORQUE APPLICATIONS - Built for maximum torque transmission.

Material PropertiesE-GlassCommercial
Carbon
Applications
Flexural Modulus Longitudinal, 106 x psi

2.73.0AUTOMOTIVE
Flexural Modulus Circumferential, 106 x psi

2.73.0
Tensile Strength Longitudinal, psi

22,000

20,000

DRIVE SHAFTS
Tensile Strength Circumferential, psi

22,000

20,000

MARINE
Compressive Strength Longitudinal, psi

26,000

23,000

DRIVE SHAFTS
Compressive Strength Circumferential, psi

26,000

23,000

COOLING
Shear Modulus, psi x 106

1.85.5TOWER
Shear Strength, psi

8,000

8,000

DRIVE SHAFTS
CTE Circumferential, in/in/oF x 106

6.4

1.1

COUPLINGS
CTE Longitudinal, in/in/oF x 106

6.4

1.1

UNDERWATER
Poisson's ratio, Nuxy

0.470.7HOUSINGS
Density, Lb/in3

0.072

0.058

BLACK AMALGON ® Built for maximum internal pressure under a compressive load.

Material PropertiesE-Glass

Commercial
Carbon
Applications
Flexural Modulus Longitudinal, 106 x psi

1.32.5PNEUMATIC
& HYDRAULIC
Flexural Modulus Circumferential, 106 x psi

3.68.7CYLINDERS
Tensile Strength Longitudinal, psi

16,00012,000

VALVE
ACTUATORS
Tensile Strength Circumferential, psi

40,00058,000

Compressive Strength Longitudinal, psi

27,000

37,000

PUMP
HOUSINGS
Compressive Strength Circumferential, psi

37,000

35,000

Shear Modulus, psi x 106

0.80.8MARINE
CYLINDERS
Shear Strength, psi

8,0008,000
CTE Circumferential, in/in/oF x 10-6

4.6-0.81

CTE Longitudinal, in/in/oF x 10-6

8.84.4
Poisson's ratio, Nuxy

0.35

0.43
Poisson's ratio, Nuxy

0.072

0.058

FIBERGLASS EPOXY TUBING (CL) General purpose fiberglass epoxy tubing.

Material PropertiesE-Glass

Applications

Flexural Modulus Longitudinal, 106 x psi

1.3

STRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS
Flexural Modulus Circumferential, 106 x psi

3.6
Tensile Strength Longitudinal, psi

16,000

MRI COIL
FORMS
Tensile Strength Circumferential, psi

40,000
Compressive Strength Longitudinal, psi

27,000

CORES
Compressive Strength Circumferential, psi

37,000

CRYOGENIC
Shear Modulus, psi x 106

0.8APPLICATIONS
Shear Strength, psi

8,000RADOMES
CTE Circumferential, in/in/oF x 10-6

4.6

CTE Longitudinal, in/in/oF x 10-6

8.8
Poisson's ratio, Nuxy

0.35

Density, Lb/in3

0.072

OVERWRAP REINFORCEMENTS - Additional strength from over wrapping.

Material PropertiesE-Glass

Commercial
Carbon
Applications
Flexural Modulus Longitudinal, 106 x psi

1.2

1.3

HIGH SPEED
ROTORS
Flexural Modulus Circumferential, 106 x psi

8.0

19.0

Tensile Strength Longitudinal, psi

5,000

6,000

REINFORCED
TANKS
Tensile Strength Circumferential, psi

210,000

210,000

Compressive Strength Longitudinal, psi

17,000

35,000

ANTI-CORROSION
COVERS
Compressive Strength Circumferential, psi

138,000

185,000

Shear Modulus, psi x 106

0.8

1.0

CATHODES
Shear Strength, psi

8,000

8,000

IMPACT
PROTECTION
CTE Circumferential, in/in/oF x 10-6

3.7

-0.09

CTE Longitudinal, in/in/oF x 10-6

13.3

11.9

Poisson's ratio, Nuxy

0.08

0.02

Density, Lb/in3

0.072

0.058

ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

Choose from fiber orientations listed on this page for mechanical properties.

Applications
Electrical Properties.....................................................E-glass
Dissipation Factor..............0.015 max
Power Factor 1MHz (ASTM D 150-64T)........60 cps 0.30%
............1 mc 0.15%
Dielectric Strength (ASTM D 149-61)
Short Term Perpendicular Volts/mil @ 60 Hz........500.00
Step by Step Perpendicular Volts/mil @ 60 Hz.....400.00
Dielectric Constant (ASTM D 150-64T) .....60 cps.......4.70
.........1 mc......4.50
Arc Resistance (ASTM 495-61)............................150.00 sec
Insulation Resistance (ASTM 257-61)
96 HRS @ 35_C 2 x 107 meg ohms..................90.00% RH
Water Absorption 24 hrs.......................................0.01% max
Thermal Conductivity BTU/in/hr/ft2/oF..........................2.50
FUSES

LIGHTNING
ARRESTORS

INSULATED
HOUSINGS

INSULATED
BUSHINGS